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The Kremlin

The KremlinThe Moscow Kremlin, an outstanding monument of Russian history, winds around a steep slope high above the Moskva River, enclosing an area of over 28 hectares (70 acres) next to Red Square. The Russian word kreml was once used to describe a fortified stronghold that encased a small town. A Russian town was usually built on a high embankment, surrounded by a river and moat, to protect against invasions. The word kreml may originate from the geek kremnos, meaning steep escarpment. The medieval kremlin acted as fortress around a town filled with palaces, churches, monasteries, wooden peasant houses and markets. The Moscow Kremlin was built between the Moskva River and Neglinnaya River (the latter now flows underground). The walls are about one kilometer ( half a mile) long, up to 19 meters (62 feet) high and 6.5 meters (21 feet) thick, with 20 towers and gates. Over ten churches and palaces lie inside.

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